Indian culture and civilization Collection by Yuyutsu


Contributions to Indian culture and civilization
Collection by Ramsharan Yuyutsu
Nalanda
Vishwakarma Brahmins built this giant educational cocommodating over 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. The university was considered an architectural masterpiece, and was marked by a lofty wall and one gate. Nalanda had eight separate compounds and ten temples, along with many other meditation halls and classrooms. On the grounds were lakes and parks. The library was located in a nine-storied building where meticulous copies of texts were produced. The subjects taught at Nalanda University covered every field of learning, and it attracted pupils and scholars from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia and Turkey.
Iron pillar of Delhi
The pillar is made up of 98% wrought iron of pure quality, and is a testament to the high level of skill achieved by ancient Indian ironsmiths in the extraction and processing of iron. It has attracted the attention of archaeologists and metallurgists as it has withstood corrosion for the last 1600 years, despite harsh weather.
Hindu architecture
A basic Hindu temple consists of an inner sanctum, the garbha griha or womb-chamber, in which the image is housed, often with space for its circumambulation, a congregation hall, and possibly an antechamber and porch. The sanctum is crowned by a tower-like shikara. At the turn of the first millennium CE two major types of temples existed, the northern or Nagara style and the southern or Dravida type of temple. They are distinguishable by the shape and decoration of their shikharas.

Buddhist architecture
Viharas (Buddhist monasteries) began to appear soon after the death of the Buddha, particularly during the Mauryan Empire (321 - 232 BC) with characteristic stupa monuments; and chaityas (meditation halls housing a stupa). The same period saw the beginning of stone architecture, evidenced by palace remains at Pataliputra as well as the Ashoka Stambha - the monolithic free-standing columns inscribed with edicts put up by the Emperor Ashoka. The Ashokan period is also marked for the introduction of brilliant rock-cut architecture, which formed into the 1000-year-long tradition of cutting and sculpting vast, complex and multi-roomed shrines cut into natural rock, resulting in religious edifices belonging to the Ajivika Buddhist, Hindu and Jain faiths.
South Indian architecture]
South Indian architecture was a style of architecture that emerged thousands of years ago in the Indian subcontinent. The sites consist primarily of pyramidal shaped temples that are dependent on intricate carved stone in order to create a step design consisting of numerous statues of deities, kings, and dancers.

Konark Sun Temple
The Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century Sun Temple (also known as the Black Pagoda), at Konark, in Orissa. It was built in red sandstone (Khandolite) and black granite by King Narasimhadeva I (AD 1236-1264) of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is one of the most well renowned temples in India and is a World Heritage Site.
Vastu Shastra
Vishwakarmas are the creators of this ancient Indian system of architectural design that has gained national and international respect and following. Vaastu Shastra deals with various aspects of designing and building living environments that are in harmony with the physical and metaphysical forces.
Mahabodhi Temple
The Mahabodhi Temple (Literally: "Great Awakening Temple") is a Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, the location where Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, attained enlightenment. Bodh Gaya is located about 96 km (60 miles) from Patna, Bihar state, India.
Indian rock-cut architecture
Indian rock-cut architecture is more various and found in greater abundance than any other form of rock-cut architecture around the world.
Ellora Caves
Ellora Caves represents the epitome of Indian rock-cut architecture. The 34 "caves" - Buddhist, Hindu and Jain temples and monasteries excavated out of the vertical face of the Charanandri hills - were built between the 5th century and 10th century. The 12 Buddhist (caves 1-12), 17 Hindu (caves 13-29) and 5 Jain caves (caves 30-34), built in proximity, demonstrate the religious harmony prevalent during this period of Indian history.
Ajanta Caves
Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra, India are rock-cut cave monuments dating from the second century BCE, containing paintings and sculpture considered to be masterpieces of both "Buddhist religious art" and "universal pictorial art". Since 1983, the Ajanta Caves have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Mahabalipuram
The monuments are mostly rock-cut and monolithic, and constitute the early stages of Dravidian architecture wherein Buddhist elements of design are prominently visible. They are constituted by cave temples, monolithic rathas (chariots), sculpted reliefs and structural temples. The pillars are of the Dravidian order. The sculptures are excellent examples of Pallava art. It is believed that this area served as a school for young sculptors. The different sculptures, some half-finished, may have been examples of different styles of architecture, probably demonstrated by instructors and practiced on by young students. This can be seen in the Pancha Rathas where each Ratha is sculpted in a different style.
Badami Cave Temples
The Badami Cave Temples are composed of four caves, all carved out of the soft Badami sandstone on a hill cliff in the late 6th century. The four caves are simple in style. The entrance is a verandah with stone columns and brackets, a distinctive feature of these caves, leading to a columned mantapa and then to the small square shrine (sanctum sanctorum) cut deep into the cave. The temple caves represent different religious sects. Among them, two are dedicated to Lord Vishnu, one to Lord Shiva and the fourth is a Jain temple. The first three are devoted to the Vedic faith and the fourth cave is the only Jain temple at Badami.
Indian culture and civilization Collection by Yuyutsu Indian culture and civilization  Collection by Yuyutsu Reviewed by Jai Pandit Azad on 11:30 AM Rating: 5
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